“If community groups had confidence that cities would negotiate and implement these things, they wouldn`t need CBA,” gross says. Roberta Gratz, author of The Battle for Gotham, is even more skeptical: “Real estate still owns the city,” she says. If a community`s strategy to get what it really wants has failed, CBAs are a way to get the most out of a bad situation. (The initial proposal of the Armory Coalition, developed after numerous community assemblies, included three 800-seat schools to address school overcrowding, a sports complex, a green market, a bookstore, a community centre and a park. No skating.) Kingsbridge Armory, New York City – In 2013, kingsbridge Armory Alliance, a coalition of several Bronx community groups, signed an agreement with the developer for the Kingsbridge National Ice Center to transform a former military armoured vehicle into a hockey sports complex. The CBA guaranteed living wages, allocated 51 percent of jobs that are not under construction to local workers, and set up a developer-funded grant for residents to learn how to install and maintain the developer`s geothermal and solar electricity systems. “They are the municipal planning institution and they are a failing institution,” says Agnotti. On one route, 1,530 apartments were demolished over one kilometre of the Cross Bronx Expressway for 5,000 people (according to Moses` own estimate). Opposition from the community – led by local mothers and grandmothers – told his biographer that it was nothing but a political thing that upset the animals. He mocked his critics: “I raise my stone to become a builder capable of removing ghettos without abducting people… the cook who can make omelettes without breaking eggs. In the spring, when New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced his support for the proposed ice center, he stood at Drill Hall with developers, politicians and skaters Hughes and Messier and said, “Leaving this armory empty and being the symbol of the task that once overwhelmed the city was simply unthinkable. NWBCCC brings new tools to the Bronx to ensure affordable housing for residents and commercial spaces for small businesses and to build shared prosperity and collective management through community countries. Desiree Pilgrim-Hunter would never have dreamed of becoming an activist.
“I was just a mother who was worried about school overcrowding,” she says, until a neighbour invited her to a meeting of a local community organization, the Northwest Bronx Community and Clergy Coalition (NWBCCC). “I used to have people complain about what was missing in our community,” she recalls. “It was the first time I`d heard people talk about how to find solutions.” In 2012, Revive Oakland created a coalition of 30 organizations, including residents, nonprofits, businesses and workers, an employment policy for the former abandoned base, transformed for $800 million into a high-tech business and logistics complex.